Cartagena Protocol:

The Cartagena Protocol was adopted in Montreal on 29-01-2000, As a supplementary agreement to the CBD and entered into force on 11-09-2003.

Cartagena Protocol seeks to protect biological diversity from the potential risks posed by living modified organism resulting from modern biotechnology. It establishes an Advanced informed Agreement (AIA)

The Cartagena Protocol also sets up a Bio Safety Clearing- House (BCH) to enable information exchange on LMOs between countries.


BIOSAFETY PROTOCOL: Since the domestication of the 1st Crops and Farm Animals, humans have altered their genetic makeup through selective breeding and cross fertilisation. The results have been greater agricultural productivity and improved human nutrition.

In recent years advances in biotechnology techniques have enabled us to cross the species barrier by transferring genes from one species to another.

Living Modified Organisms (LMOs) often known as Genetically Modified Organisms(GMOs) are becoming an increasing part of number of products, including foods and food additives, beverages, drugs, additives and fuels.

Agricultural and Pharmaceuticals LMOs have rapidly become a multi – billion dolor global Industries.

Biotech is being promoted as a better way to grow crops and produce medicines, but it has raised concerns about potential side effects on human health and the environment including risk to biological diversity. In some countries, genetically altered agricultural products have been sold without much debate, while others, there have been vocal protects against their use, particularly when they are sold without being identified as genetically modified.

In response to this concerns Governments negotiated a subsidiary agreement to convention to address the potential risk posed by cross-border trade and accidental releases of LMOs. Adopted in January 2000, the Cartagena Agreement on Bio Safety allows Governments to signal whether or not they are willing to accept imports of agricultural commodities that include LMOs by communicating their decision to the world community via Bio Safety Clearing House.


Bio Safety Clearing House:   (BCH) – A mechanism setup to facilitate the exchange of information on and experience with LMOs. In addition, commodities that may contains LMOs. Are to be clearly labeled as such when being exported. Stricter advanced informed agreement procedure will apply to seeds, live fish and other LMOs that rea to be intentionally introduced into the environment.

The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity is an international treaty governing the Movements of Living Modified Organisms. (LMOs) resulting from modern Biotechnologies from one country to another.

Web of Life is divided into three parts:

  1. Genes
  2. Species
  3. Eco System

Groups of Organism Sharing a common Ancestor have the same characteristics that are identify as:

  • Breeds for Animals
  • Varieties for Plants


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